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托福阅读备考:句子简化题的解题技巧

托福阅读备考:句子简化题的解题技巧


       

在托福阅读的十大题型中,句子简化题也是其中尤为突显其特色的一种题目类型。句子简化题在新托福阅读考试中通常一篇文章只有一题,虽然量不多,但是如果考生的语法很棒,这种题可谓是“送分题”。因为这种题型的主要考查目的是:考查考生们理解文章中某一特定复杂句子所传达的基本内容,并不受细枝末节的干扰,用简化的句子表达原句基本内容的能力。因此,考生们的语法水平在解题过程中就显得尤为重要。

以OG Practice Set 4 (Aggression)中的第8题为例:

The Cognitive Approach. Cognitive psychologists assert that our behavior is influenced by our values, by the ways in which we interpret our situations, and by choice. For example, people who believe that aggression is necessary and justified – as during wartime – are likely to act aggressively, whereas people who believe that a particular war or act of aggression is unjust, or who think that aggression is never justified, are less likely to behave aggressively.

8. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence- Incorrect answer choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

People who believe that they are fighting a just war act aggressively while those who believe that they are fighting an unjust war do not.

People who believe that aggression is necessary and justified are more likely to act aggressively than those who believe differently.

People who normally do not believe that aggression is necessary and justified may act aggressively during wartime.

People who believe that aggression is necessary and justified do not necessarily act aggressively during wartime.

分析:题目中阴影句子的主句为“people who believe that aggression is necessary and justified – as during wartime – are likely to act aggressively”,其中“who believe that aggression is necessary and justified”为people的定语从句,因此该主句部分翻译为“相信攻击或者侵略是必要和公正(就如在战争时期)的人可能会有攻击性或者侵略性行为”;而“whereas people who believe that a particular war or act of aggression is unjust, or who think that aggression is never justified, are less likely to behave aggressively”是whereas引导的表示对比、对立或者直接相反的状语从句,其中“who believe that a particular war or act of aggression is unjust, or who think that aggression is never justified,”是该从句中限定“people”的定语从句,因此该状语从句意为“然而那些认为某场战争或侵略行为是不公正的,或者相信侵略是不合理的人,有攻击性或者侵略性行为的可能性更小一些”。阴影部分的句子主要是把持有不同看法的人的行为的可能性做了对比,因此答案选第二个更合理。

其他题型的考查重点虽然不是语法,但是语法也会严重影响题目的理解和答题。建议考生们把新托福阅读中常涉及的语法知识掌握好,比如定语从句、状语从句、宾语从句、主语从句、表语从句、同位语从句、分词、动名词、不定式、倒装、强调句式等。


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